Phosphatidylserine dosage and review
memory benefit researcj

Phosphatidylserine is a natural nutrient found as part of the cell membrane of cells. Phosphatidylserine is most notably found in the cell membrane of neurons, comprising about 7 to 10 percent of its lipid content. The total body phosphatidylserine pool is estimated to be approximately 60 grams, with 30 grams in the brain and 30 grams in the rest of the body. The average daily phosphatidylserine intake from the diet in western countries is estimated to be 130 mg. Phosphatidylserine is located mainly in the internal layer of the cell membrane. Phosphatidylserine facilitates membrane fluidity and in the regulation of biological cell activities. It exhibits direct and indirect interactions with membrane-associated proteins, it modulates the activity of receptors, enzymes, ion channels and signalling molecules.

Bovine vs Soy
Several studies in the past in Europe have evaluated the role of oral BC-phosphatidylserine administration in both animals and humans. In general, the results have shown positive benefits in terms of mind and memory enhancement. However, we need to keep a very important point in mind. The studies with phosphatidylserine have used bovine cortex as the source. Can we assume that the results with soy-derived phosphatidylserine would be similar?
   No, we can't. phosphatidylserine consists of serine attached to fatty acids. The serine molecule in phosphatidylserine found in cow brain is attached mostly to long chained polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA or AA (arachidonic acid). In addition, the cow brain extract is not pure phosphatidylserine. It most likely contains other brain components such as sphingolipids, sphingomyelins, and other brain constituents, which may have led to improvements in brain function. For obvious reasons--potential viruses present in cow brain --we should not be using the cow brain extract of phosphatidylserine. The phosphatidylserine in soy is basically serine attached to saturated on monounsaturated fatty acids, along with other fats from soy, which are chemically very different than the fats found in cow brain. Hence, we are basically comparing apples to oranges. It is medically and scientifically improper to use the results of studies done with phosphatidylserine from cow brain and thus claim that soy derived phosphatidylserine is also effective.

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What is the right phosphatidylserine dosage to take for long term use?
    PS is an expensive supplement and the benefits are not fully clear, therefore one capsule a day is a reasonable dosage.

Phosphatidylserine pill
Although lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) has been available as a supplement for many decades, phosphatidylserine became available to the North American market in the mid 1990s. In the past, phosphatidylserine was obtained from the brain of cows. In fact, if you read some of the research studies published with phosphatidylserine, it will identify this nutrient as BC-phosphatidylserine. The BC stands for bovine cortex, or cow brain. The reason BC-phosphatidylserine is not sold is because of the fear of viruses or infectious agents being inadvertently introduced in the phosphatidylserine product when extracted from the brains of cows. The phosphatidylserine currently available over the counter is derived from soy.

Benefits of PS

Eur Psychiatry. 2012. The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension. The results of this 30-week study suggest that PS-Omega3 may reduce ADHD symptoms in children. Preliminary analysis suggests that this treatment may be especially effective in a subgroup of hyperactive-impulsive, emotionally and behaviorally-dysregulated ADHD children.

Brain function, cognition
The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.
Jorisse BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Ponds RW, Verhey FR, Jolles J, Riedel WJ.
Nutr Neurosci 2001. Experimental Psychopharmacology Unit, Brain and Behaviour Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Phosphatidylserine is a phospholipid widely sold as a nutritional supplement. Phosphatidylserine has been claimed to enhance neuronal membrane function and hence cognitive function, especially in the elderly. We report the results of a clinical trial of soybean-derived PS (S-Phosphatidylserine) in aging subjects with memory complaints. Subjects were 120 elderly of both sexes who fulfilled the more stringent criteria for age-associated memory impairment (AAMI); some also fulfilled the criteria for age-associated cognitive decline. Subjects were allocated at random to one of the three treatment groups: placebo, 300mg S-Phosphatidylserine daily, or 600mg S-Phosphatidylserine daily. Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, and after a wash-out period of 3 weeks. Tests of learning and memory, choice reaction time, planning and attentional functions were administered at each assessment. Delayed recall and recognition of a previously learned word list comprised the primary outcome measures. No significant differences were found in any of the outcome variables between the treatment groups. There were also no significant interactions between treatment and 'severity of memory complaints'. In conclusion, a daily supplement of S-Phosphatidylserine does not affect memory or other cognitive functions in older individuals with memory complaints.

Exercise recovery, golf, cycling
Phosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill running.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006. University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, United Kingdom.
This study investigated the effects of 750 mg of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine PS, administered daily for 7 d prior to a bout of eccentric exercise and for 2d following exercise, on delayed onset of muscle soreness and markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress that followed prolonged downhill running. Supplementation with 750 mg a day soybean-derived phosphatidylserine for 10 days does not afford additional protection against delayed onset of muscle soreness and markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress that follow prolonged downhill running.
Comments: Other phosphatidylserine studies have shown improvement in cycling performance.

Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006. Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton D. Department of Sports Science, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 750 mg of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine, administered daily for 10 days, on exercise capacity, oxygen uptake kinetic response, neuroendocrine function, and feeling states during exhaustive intermittent exercise. This is the first study to report improved exercise capacity following phosphatidylserine supplementation. These findings suggest that phosphatidylserine might possess potential ergogenic properties.
   Comments: Other phosphatidylserine studies have not shown improvement in exercise recovery.

Phosphatidylserine supplement, in one study, has shown potential benefit in improving a golfer's game. Dr. Holger Herwegen of the University of Paderborn in Germany evaluated the performance of 20 golfers, whose handicaps ranged from 15 to 40, before and after taking 200 milligrams of the supplement daily in nutritional bar form or a placebo for 42 days. Before taking the supplement, the golfers averaged 8.3 "good ball flights" out of 20 tee-offs aiming at a green 135 meters away, while they rated their stress levels at 5.8. After six weeks of supplementation, they averaged 10.1 good flights while their stress levels were 4.0. The change in stress levels wasn't statistically significant. This study was funded by Chemi Nutra, of White Bear Lake, Minnesota. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, December 4, 2007.
   Comments: At least two more studies are required before we can claim that phosphatidylserine improves one's golf game.


Availability of phosphatidylserine pill products
BC-phosphatidylserine is not available in the US but soy-derived phosphatidylserine is sold in vitamin stores. Each 500 mg gel capsule contains several phospholipids with 100 mg being actual phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine is an expensive nutrient with each pill costing between 50 cents and one dollar. It is worth emphasizing that the phosphatidylserine currently available is derived from soy products and thus has a different fatty acid composition than the bovine cortex-derived phosphatidylserine used in published studies. Therefore, the chemical makeup of BC-phosphatidylserine is different when compared to soy-phosphatidylserine.

Lipogen and Hankintatukku Launch New Phosphatidylserine (PS) Supplement, 2008
Hankintatukku Oy, Finland, will start marketing Lipogen PS-Plus (Phosphatidylserine 100mg. and Phosphatidic Acid 100mg. PAS) – a dietary supplement for mental stress control – in Finland and Scandinavia.

Phosphatidylserine and glinkgo biloba research
Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007. Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, Scholey AB. Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, University of Northumbria, UK.
The current study aimed to assess the comparative cognitive and mood effects of a low dose of ginkgo biloba extract and products complexing the same extract with either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine. Twenty-eight healthy young participants received 120 mg ginkgo biloba extract, 120 mg ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine (Virtiva), 120 mg ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylcholine and a matching placebo, on separate days 7 days apart. In keeping with previous research utilising the same methodology, 120 mg of ginkgo biloba extract was not associated with markedly improved performance on the primary outcomes. However, administration of ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine resulted both in improved secondary memory performance and significantly increased speed of memory task performance across all of the post-dose testing sessions. Complexation with phosphatidylserine appears to potentiate the cognitive effects associated with a low dose of ginkgo biloba extract.

Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people.
Nutr Neurosci. 2002. Jorissen BL, Brouns F, Van Boxtel MP, Riedel WJ. Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Phosphatidylserine PS is a phospholipid which has been claimed to enhance neuronal membrane function, and can be derived from several sources. Earlier studies used brain cortex derived Phosphatidylserine, of which the human tolerability of 300mg daily in 130 patients has been shown. The human tolerability of Phosphatidylserine derived from soybean has not been reported, although it is widely sold as a nutritional supplement which may improve cognitive function in the elderly. We report the results of a study of the safety of two dosages of soy-phosphatidylserine in elderly. Subjects were 120 elderly of both sexes who fulfilled the more stringent criteria for age-associated memory impairment; some also fulfilled the criteria for age-associated cognitive decline. Subjects were allocated at random to one of the three treatment groups: placebo, 300 or 600 mg S-Phosphatidylserine daily. Standard biochemical and hematological safety parameters, blood pressure, heart rate and adverse events were assessed at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. No significant differences were found in any of the outcome variables between the treatment groups after Bonferonni-Holme correction. In conclusion, soy derived Phosphatidylserine is a safe nutritional supplement for older persons if taken up to a dosage of 200 mg three times daily.

The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor.

Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S.
Nutr Neurosci 2001. Department of Psychology, University of Wales Swansea, United Kingdom.
There have been previous reports that supplements of phosphatidylserine blunted the release of cortisol in response to exercise stress and that it improved mood. The present study extended these observations by considering whether Phosphatidylserine supplementation influenced subjective feelings of stress and the change in heart rate when a stressful mental arithmetic task was performed. In young adults, with neuroticism scores above rather than below the median, the taking of 300mg Phosphatidylserine each day for a month was associated with feeling less stressed and having a better mood. The study for the first time reports an improvement in mood following Phosphatidylserine supplementation in a sub-group of young healthy adults.

Expert Opinions
Companies promoting soy-Phosphatidylserine make positive claims about this supplement and defend its promotion by citing research studies done on BC-Phosphatidylserine . I interviewed many experts on fats, including Drs. Simopoulos, Hibbeln, and Salem, regarding their opinions on Phosphatidylserine . All experts were unanimous in their assessment that one can’t automatically use the studies done with BC-Phosphatidylserine to claim the same benefits as that of soy-Phosphatidylserine . Lloyd Horrocks, Ph. D., Professor Emeritus of Medical Biochemistry at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, and an expert on fatty acids says, “The fatty acids in bovine cortex Phosphatidylserine are mostly made of DHA and arachidonic acid while the fatty acids from soy-derived Phosphatidylserine are made mostly from oleic, linolenic, and linoleic acids. It’s quite likely the DHA and arachidonic acids in BC-Phosphatidylserine could have some cognitive effect. It’s also possible that the clinical effects from taking Phosphatidylserine may be due to this nutrient influencing the release of histamine, glucose uptake in the brain, or in other yet unknown ways.”

Raw material cost
As of 2013, the raw material cost of phophatidylserine is
Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) 20% $ 220/kg
30% $ 300/kg
50% $ 500/kg

Phosphatidylserine product questions
Q. I recently had a saliva cortisol test done which shows my morning reading totally out of higher range and noon afternoon midnight readings on the high end. I also have major short-term memory problem, foggy mind, depressive mood (in the form of apathy), and severe anxiety. The known medical problem that i have i have i had my whole thyroid removed 7 years ago due to cancer and since then no endocrinologiest has been able to balance my thyroid hormone intake. I am currently using a mixture of natural compounding T3 (15 mcg) + Levoxyl (100 mcg) per day. My doctor also put me on Phosphatidylserine (two capsuls at bedtimes) and the one i bought (Jarrow Phosphatidylserine 100 mg) is derived from soy. As far as supplements go do you have a better suggestion that would control my memory problem, foggy mind, depressive mood (in the form of apathy), and severe anxiety?
   A. Your doctor may wish to read information on Mind Power Rx and MultiVit Rx.

Interactions with medications
Q. I would like to try a phosphatidylserine product but need to know its reaction with other meds such as Coumadin, Toprol, and Digoxin.
   A. Few studies have been done combining medications and supplements, and we are not aware of any that have combined phosphatidylserine products and these medications. However, our best information tells us that a phosphatidylserine supplement at one capsule or softgel a day should not interfere with these medications to any great extent.

Q. I read the web page phosphatidylserine. Can my husband who is on blood pressure medication (Diovan HCT and Norvasc) take it?
   A. PS appears to be relatively benign as a supplement, but unexpected reactions can sometimes occur when drugs and supplements are combined. It is your doctor's decision.

Q. My understanding is that Phosphatidylserine is a precursor of Phosphatidylcholine. Is Phosphatidylserine an active substance with its own beneficial properties, or does it just boost levels of Phosphatidylcholine, and causes its benefits this way? I understand there is no conclusive evidence that soy-derived Phosphatidylserine ànd Phosphatidylcholine are beneficial as memory enhancers, but what do you think is more likely to be effective using just Phosphatidylserine, just Phosphatidylcholine, or combination of both?
   A. Phosphatidylserine is found in the cell membrane and has its own role and benefits. There are many substances that are beneficial for improving mental function and memory. You can find some of these herbs and nutrients listed at this memory link. As a general rule we prefer using both phosphatidylserine ànd phosphatidylcholine rather than just one and it is better to use small amounts of a number of nutrients than a large amount of one.

Q. I took 100 mg of phosphotidylserine for one week, then increased to 200 mg of phosphotidylserine, then 300 mg phosphotidylserine for 2 more weeks but did not notice much mental enhancement.
   A. Most people notice mental enhancement much more convincingly from acetyl carnitine, dmae, ginkgo, and other mind enhancers. Phosphotidylserine is not the correct spelling, rather phosphatidylserine.

Q. I'd love to know if the phosphatidyserine from soy has all the estrogen and allergic components taken out of it during the
processing. I'd like to order some but I need to stay away from estrogens plus I'm sensitive to soy.
   A. Phosphatidylserine supplements do not have estrogen, but it is possible soy remnants may remain.

Q. I have read that phosphatidyl serine supplements should not be taken by children. I have just started my 10 year old daughter on a supplement containing 100 mg of Phosphatidylserine, 24% ginkgo biloba and vitamins in the hopes of helping her attention deficit and memory problems as she suffers from fetal alcohol syndrome. Why shouldn't children take Phosphatidylserine when it is found naturally in soy milk and soy supplements?
   A. We are not convinced that soy derived phosphatidylserine is helpful as a memory nutrient.

Q. The research on PS for brains seems a little iffy from what you are saying here. Would phosphatidylserine benefit peripheral nerve injuries at all? Specifically a neuropraxia due to trauma. Any thoughts on anything else that might help nerve trauma?
   A. We have not seen such research and doubt that phosphatidylserine would be effective in these conditions. Phosphatidylserine research studies in humans is limited.

Q. What are your thoughts on PS as a memory booster?
   A. Phosphatidylserine research for memory enhancement has not shown it to be very impressive.

I am from Honduras. I read Mind Boosters book. I was once a very bright person, as kid I took an IQ test and got a 142 test score. But now I am having great difficulties with my memory, concentration and organization. Stress greatly reduces my performance. I think my problems started at a very early I grew in a abusive family later in life I started having problems with bullies. Until I got to adolecence and decided that i wasn't any crap from anyone anymore, so I got much better at verbal confrontation or fisical if necessary, but the problem after this is that after i stoped being victimized I lost all interest anything life at had to offer. I had friends and always passed my classes but never made a effort at anything because i did't see the point to it. years later i seek help but prescription medication didn't do much for me so i tried some suplements, teraphy, regular exercise with better results. But they still fall short in the above mentioned areas. which stops me from and independant, which i need to move on with my life. So I wanted to ask: where can i buy legaly buy bovine cortex derived phospholipid serine BD-PS? As other suplement have failed, and my problems greatly worsen with stress and i have read the benefits PC BS and it's unique capability to reduce stress induced mental deterioration, I am fully aware of the risks involved with this product and i am willing to take on the risks. My second question is: Could i reduce the risks of takin BC PC by also using some immune boosting product like lin zhi or yun zhi mushroom extract.
    We are not aware of any company that markets BC PS.

Our center runs into a lot of issues around Sleep and Memory / Cognitive function. We've been evaluating sleep products and getting samples from a few select companies. I've read about Dr. Sahelian periodically and just came across your site on a search. Is it possible for us to try one bottle to evaluate of: Good-Night-Rx
Mind Power Rx. Also, does it make sense to combine Mind Power with phosphatidyl serine?
    Free samples are not available at this time. We don't have any feedback from users of Mind Power Rx who have combined it with PS supplement.

Are there contraindications to taking yohimbe bark along with PS product?
    Not that we know of.

Brain Boost
Jarrow Formulas and Enzymotec Collaborate by Combining Sharp PS GOLD as a Major Ingredient in Brain Boost April 2010
BrainBoost, a cognitive improvement product, was recently launched by Jarrow Formulas incorporating Enzymotec's Sharp PS GOLD as one of its primary ingredients. Sharp PS GOLD is a clinically proven activated form of Phosphatidylserine (PS), having DHA conjugated to its backbone. This structure, which follows the naturally occurring PS of the human body, enables higher brain availability of DHA and a combined action of PS and DHA to improve cognitive performance."We are excited about Jarrow's decision to make Sharp PS GOLD a major component of BraiBoost" , says Elzaphan Hotam, CEO of Enzymotec USA. "We truly believe this is an important step for making this ingredient a standard for the entire cognitive supplement industry. "Our relationship has always focused on products that are clinically-documented and science-based ". 'We're happy to add yet another nutrient from Enzymotec into our portfolio" says Peilin Guo, MS ,Executive Vice President for Jarrow Formulas.